# Category Archives: Uncategorized

## Gaps

I teach an “Accelerated Grade 7” math course which covers all of the grade 7 Common Core standards and many of the grade 8 standards.  As such, I teach any student who’s ready to take it – I have mostly seventh-graders, but I have a handful of sixth-graders taking it ahead of schedule, and a handful of eighth-graders who are moving along at a slower pace.

A few of the seventh- and eighth- graders have academic deficiencies to the point that I do not know what to do or how to teach them effectively. It’s keeping me up at night and I wondered if anyone had some advice for me. This is what I mean and what I’m looking for.

I have one student who has very little concept of place value. As in, he holds a centimeter ruler up to an object and tells me “I know it’s between the 5 and the 6. I just don’t know how to write that number.” The idea of tenths never really got there.

Several of the kids don’t have the concept of area as a measure of coverage of 2-dimensional space. They can count squares and work with whole-number areas if they are given a diagram with squares on it. But given an object’s dimensions with rational numbers, and asked to find its area or surface area – not at all sure what that means.

Given an equation, such as “3x + 5 = 17”, they don’t understand what the equation means so can’t even begin to guess what value of “x” would make it true. This is where we are, when the kids are 13-14 years old and about to enter algebra I.

I fundamentally believe in giving the kids access to math that will challenge them and help them grow, and I’m really frustrated – and it keeps me up at night – when we take a test, and the paraprofessionals who help in my class report to me that some students did not know how to even start, what to do, or what anything meant.

During lessons, what makes all of this phenomenally more difficult is that most will hide what they don’t know – pretending to write, hovering over their papers, asking for bathroom or supply breaks, copying answers from a friend, etc. I can only get a sense of where they are if I sit and interview the student, which as you probably can guess, doesn’t happen as often as I’d like.

You might have seen students like this before, you might not – what I’m wondering is what you have done that has helped you and the kids work past it. Please give me some ideas – how can I structure my lessons, how can I use the paraprofessionals and SPED teachers better, how I can systematically identify, help, and give feedback to kids who are working way, way below grade level in a grade-level math class.  What has even been partially successful for you?

Thank you so much in advance!!

Posted by on April 20, 2014 in Uncategorized

## What it’s like to live Common Core

My Facebook feed is often populated with friends’ negativity about the Common Core State Standards. Common Core is turning our schools into data-run factories for mindless automatons. Common Core de-values correctness, making our kids sloppy and undisciplined. Common Core is too hard and makes kids cry.  Common core makes kids pee their pants. Common Core requires 108 steps to complete a division problem.  Hitler would have loved Common Core!

I live the Common Core every day as a 7th grade mathematics teacher.  I don’t hate it. Actually, I really value what it has brought to my teaching. It’s been difficult and stressful at times, as new initiatives are, but I’m optimistic that it’s going to help me become a better teacher and my students become better learners. All of the links above make flawed assumptions about Common Core. I’m getting pretty familiar with the middle-school Common Core math standards, and there are some things you should know before you share that viral video.

WHAT COMMON CORE IS – AND IS NOT

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are a set of learning objectives.  They lay out what kids should know and be able to do at each grade level. That’s it. They’re goals.  They’re statements such as “Understand the concept of a ratio” and “Solve linear equations in one variable”.  There are many ways to teach kids to reach those goals. The standards lay out some of the ways but give kids and teachers quite a bit of freedom.  Thus, Common Core is not a curriculum, a mindset, a religion, a structure, or a test or a set of consequences for failing the test. It is a set of goals and that’s it.

A common set of state standards was badly needed.  Statistically, kids get a vastly different level of education depending on the state in which they live (see slides 22 and 23 here). Our educational system has produced consistently poor results for decades, and for those that think the educational system in our day was just fine – it wasn’t. One in three adults lacks basic numeracy skills – we’re products of a subpar educational system that has stagnated.  Until recently, the educational standards for each state were almost all different, with some states significantly low-balling standards to make it easier to make adequate yearly process (AYP) for No Child Left Behind.  States were feeling pressure or even being required to adopt new standards without the financial resources to do it, and so pooling resources in order to come up with a common set of state standards made a lot of sense.  It was, and is, a reasonable response to start the course correction.  We need to raise the bar, and so we’re doing it together.

WHY I LIKE COMMON CORE

I live in the world of the CCSS for Middle School Mathematics.  Implementing the standards has been challenging and stressful and at times very confusing, and I won’t pretend to love the process.  It’s hard, and it will be for some time.  But there are big payoffs, and you should know that overall it’s going to be a good thing for public education.  As an example, my colleagues and I just finished teaching a unit on Ratio and Proportion.  When we started the unit, we looked closely at the Common Core standards to understand just what our students are supposed to do.  CCSS-M 7.RP.A.2a reads:

Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin.

We struggled for quite a long time with what that standard means and what evidence shows you understand it.  Is it enough to be able to answer questions like these, that show you tables and graphs and ask you to pick which ones are proportional?

These questions technically meet the standard, but they feel like they don’t answer a bigger question of why proportional relationships are important. Why would you need to check to see if a relationship was proportional?

Our department chair suggested that a student might be asked about three recipes and might need to know if they represented the same recipe but scaled up and down, or if they were different recipes.

This is a good application of proportionality. Will these make the same syrup or different syrup?  Which is the sweetest? Students can explain their reasoning in multiple ways, by dividing to make unit ratios, by graphing, by making a table, or making a diagram – any of those strategies would show the student understands how proportionality works.  Our team felt we were starting to understand more about this thread.

We looked together for other examples and brainstormed how we could teach students about proportionality.  We found activities that would tie together multiple standards, where students could represent proportional relationships with equations. We talked about real-life examples where inexact measurements come out to be nearly proportional but not exactly – as in human body measurements, or this example about worms.

We discussed common misconceptions students would have and how to start addressing them, as with students who had a weak understanding of place value and didn’t know what to do with decimal ratios, or misunderstanding the relationship between fractions and ratios. We created our unit plan together, and found some resources from teachers in other states who were teaching the same concepts.

My point is that as we were using the CCSS to help our students become better learners, it was making us better learners. That exercise of working through the confusion around the standards was necessary and important. It still is, every day. The standards alone aren’t going to improve teaching and learning, so embracing the process is critical.

A feature I like in the CCSS-M is the list of Standards for Mathematical Practice. It’s a list of strategies that make us better mathematicians – there are eight of them, including “Look for and make use of structure” and “Attend to precision” and “Use appropriate tools strategically”.  It’s helpful to keep the list handy, posted multiple places in the classroom and tucked in your planner – so you can use it to identify strategies that will help students tackle tough problems. As students wrestle with open-ended word problems, they can be taught to be more mindful of pattern-finding, the use of technology, correct attention to an algorithm, estimation, and questioning themselves about the correctness of their equation or model.  I like having common language to help students identify their thinking strategies and be mindful of their use.  “You do a great job of coming up with a mathematical model, so where I want you to work is on really attending to precision and being careful of sloppiness along the way. Check the reasonableness of your answer when you are done. Does that answer feel right?”  These strategies can be systematically worked on. I like that the CCSS puts them front and center.

ALL IS NOT BUTTERFLIES AND RAINBOWS – WHAT I DO NOT LIKE ABOUT COMMON CORE

So living with the CCSS has made life harder, but has made teaching better.  However, here are some features of the Common Core in middle school that are big problems for me.  There is probably a misplaced standard here and there, and there are still too many concepts to teach and not enough time for all of it, but really those are small details that we can navigate around.  My larger issues with the Common Core standards are these.

1) Mental math and estimation play a role in Common Core, but it’s not emphasized enough. There’s an amassing body of evidence that shows that simply improving your “guesstimation” skills can really improve your numeracy down the road, and it really is a skill we should systematically develop from the early grades on. Give me a 6th grader with solid estimation skills and calculator proficiency over a 6th grader that can:

I don’t know that we need to ditch these skills but I wonder if the decision to include them was based on tradition instead of actual data.  I wonder if we’d get more bang for the buck if we focused on mental math.  I would like to see us question it more.

2) Technology plays a very small role in Common Core as well.  In all of the middle school CCSS-M standards, technology is mentioned exactly TWICE.  Adults use computers for math modeling.  It’s how society interacts with math. Middle schoolers should be using computers often to model with mathematics and should know how to get the results they want from technology. It’s the 21st century, people.

3) By the time you get to 8th grade, the standards are almost completely divorced from any notion of practical application. The standards claim to balance conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and application. I feel the 6th and 7th grade standards are well balanced between the abstract and the practical, but the higher math standards have almost no application woven in whatsoever.  What a shame.  Algebra is extremely practical, especially with the modern modeling tools at our disposal today – iPads, computers, smart phones, and programmable graphing calculators. Computer programming is nearly universal in the job market and a very practical application of algebra.  Why is it left completely up to the teachers to invent applications of 8th grade math involving linear functions, systems of equations, and exponential functions?  They’re beautiful, abstract, and also darn useful. We can find a much better balance.  We’re setting ourselves up for another generation of “why do I have to know this?”

BUT I’M HOPEFUL

All that said, if we can get past the nonsense about fighting educational reform, if we can accept the premise that we really do have some re-thinking to do about how we approach mathematics in school, if we fully accept our role as developing critical thinkers, and if we can embrace the vast resource pool that’s just becoming available to use as Common Core comes online – we’ve got a good shot at making this thing work. There’s more to do in other areas, but this will start some terrific conversations.

Posted by on January 10, 2014 in Uncategorized

## Hour of Code activities!

The Hour Of Code is such an exciting initiative and I am a HUGE, huge believer in coding because of the thinking it requires you to do.  I thought to myself how programming changed me as a mathematical thinker – it’s a powerful tool for math modeling.  It’s frustrating, but any excuses we ever had for NOT teaching it are quickly evaporating.  It’s no longer difficult and confusing for kids.  You don’t have to compile, link, or wade through cryptic error messages.  Some languages don’t even require you to type. It no longer requires software to install.  It’s no longer time-consuming and hard to find information on how to code.  Furthermore, coding has gotten sexier and more exciting. It’s colorful. It’s beautiful.  It gives you feedback instantly on whether your thinking is right or wrong.

Students present their first big project in groups.

I use Khan Academy and Javascript for coding projects in my 7th grade math class.  I like the colorful editor, the easy management of my classes, and the seamless integration with Google Docs.

For your perusal, here are some programming mini-projects we’ve done in 7th grade math you might consider for your Hour of Code – sorted by Common Core Math Standard.

7.EE.4 Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

7.NS.3 Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers.

1.  Write a program that draws a rectangle and uses variables for the side lengths.  Calculate the area and perimeter of the rectangle and display them on the screen.

(Clown WS that goes with the video: Clown WS)

2.  Troubleshoot a program that creates a pep rally graph and averages the attendance at 4 rallies.  (Order of operations troubleshooting).  I called these my “Wreck-it Ralph” activities, where I presented students with a broken program and tasked them with fixing it.  This activity was really great and created some awesome mathematical discussion.

7.RP.1: Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units.

7.RP.2: Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

1: “Rates, Ratios, and Fractions: https://www.khanacademy.org/cs/fractions-ratios-rates-with-khan/2450604051

2: “Population Graph” (Wreck-it Ralph troubleshooting) https://www.khanacademy.org/cs/graphing-population-problem/2516563772

7.RP.3: Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems.

7.G.1: Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.

1. Price of shoes (Wreck-it Ralph): https://www.khanacademy.org/cs/broken-percents/5186416250191872

2. Enlarging and Reducing Snowflakes: https://www.khanacademy.org/cs/enlarging-and-reducing-with-percents/4696957649944576

Video / extension: loops and snowflakes  https://docs.google.com/a/psdschools.org/file/d/0B2H_6bIuJrltNVdYNWhwV09sZ3c/edit

Rich math tasks really take on a new dimension when they’re done in a programming context.  The feedback is instant, the visuals are rich, the numbers are never easy to work with, yet mental math and estimation are crucial to understanding if your results are reasonable.  Abstraction and modeling are inherent in these tasks and they force students to really understand the structure of the mathematics.  The students, though, just say they like it.  They say they can’t wait to learn more.  They say “I’m good at this.”  They feel like good problem-solvers and creative people. And you know what? They are.

“I’m good at this.”

Posted by on December 10, 2013 in Uncategorized

## Outsider

This has nothing to do with the math classroom. I was just talking to my husband tonight about our engineering school experiences and I thought of this anecdote.

I declared a major in Computer Engineering in 1993. I had some computer experience – I was a gamer, I knew how to e-mail, and I’d done a few little projects in Atari BASIC when I was a young teen. This experiences gave me just enough confidence to get a good start in my classes and persist with the engineering program.  I had to take a class on computer architecture in which we learned assembly language during my sophomore year, and I really did like the class and felt I did pretty well.  There’s one lecture that stood out in my mind.

Aside from my middle school Atari BASIC tinkering, I really hadn’t done much programming.  It wasn’t offered as a course at any of my schools, and I busied myself with enough high school activities and AP classes that I didn’t leave much time for learning more programming. I never really thought about learning it at the time.  Many of my classmates had taught themselves C and had written complicated and even professional software by the time they were sophomores.

I’m not making any judgments or excuses, but I notice that more males make time for tinkering, inventing, and teaching themselves about computers on their own, as a hobby, than females do.  I wonder why?  I think I, and really any of my classmates, would have had an easier time in engineering school if we’d done more tinkering earlier.

At the time, it just wouldn’t have occurred to me that it would be fun to mess around with computers just to see what I could do.  I do from time to time now.  I wonder why I didn’t find it interesting then.  I wonder if that tinkering spirit gets a kid a little bit of an advantage if they major in engineering.

If there’s a problem statement in there, I wonder what the solution is.

Posted by on December 4, 2013 in Uncategorized

## Order of Operations via Computer-Based Math

Toward the end of our unit on rational numbers and rational number operations, my team worked to address standard 7.NS.3 “Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers.”  As I searched for problems that could be modeled via computer programs, I realized some of them also addressed standard 7.EE.2 “Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that “increase by 5%” is the same as “multiply by 1.05.””

I have been teaching my students JavaScript via Khan Academy as a way of teaching math.  Here is a list of some lessons I did on these two standards!

1.  Area and Perimeter.

First, a video on how to create and assign variables, and display text.

The students’ task: draw a rectangle and use formulas to calculate area and perimeter.

2.  The averaging problem.
As we got more into learning about order of operations, I thought about this idea as a way of modeling an “order of operations” problem on the computer.  I gave the students this program, put them into groups, and told them it did not look quite right.  I asked them to please troubleshoot it for me.

The broken “averaging” program. Click the link above to see the program, and you can look at the spin-offs to see some student solutions (many incorrect ones or “discussion starters” as I call them)

This activity was AWESOME.  Students noticed the bar for “119” was the same as the bar for “312” right away, and that was one of the errors.  Many of the students noticed that the average was not calculated right.  It’s an order of operations problem because my formula for the mean has no parentheses in it.  Students actually found multiple approaches to fix it, and this problem generated some great discussion.

3.  The Cricket Problem.

I posed this problem on the board: “Jennifer owns reptiles.  The lizards each eat 2 crickets per day.  The snakes each eat 6 crickets per day. The bearded dragons each eat 10 crickets per day. Jennifer wants to write a computer program to calculate the number of crickets needed for 1 week.  She has this so far.

var L;  // lizards
var S; // Snakes
var BD;  // Bearded Dragons
var C;  // crickets
Write a computer command that will calculate the weekly number of crickets and display that to the screen.”

Many students were extremely baffled by writing an expression that had variables in it instead of using numbers I gave them.  We did “catch-and-release” as a class several times before groups made sufficient progress.  Eventually a few different solutions came out of this.  Two are in this program.

Tony and Maggie’s two solutions modeled the distributive property, something I hadn’t even planned to come out of this.  We did not fully process the distributive property at this time, but focused on the expression and the use of parentheses and the order of operations.  It was a great discussion.  The lesson was great for many kids, but was out of reach of some at this time. I think often about how much I’m asking kids to reach out of their comfort zone.  This one might have been too far, but if I don’t ask them to reach at all, they will not grow.  I struggle with the “just right” balance.  More formative assessment would help me, perhaps.  And I could have built some background knowledge a little better.

4.  The Money Program.

The final mini-project in this unit was for the students to create a program that would use variables to represent pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, and dollars – and to calculate how much money you had with those amounts of coins.  I got some good results from kids, but I also had many students that got stuck and stayed stuck.  Part of the problem, I know, was the amount of time I dedicated to this (it was a little over 1 class period, but that did not feel like enough time) and that it was the same program for everyone and thus had no creative component.  I did decide that we had to end the unit because the Ratio / Proportion unit was next, and that is more of a power standard than order of operations at this time.  Here is a skeleton of the Money Program.  The project had a lot of potential, and I might have taken it farther if it could have been more creative for the kids.  Maybe I should have had them invent their own money system!

Coming next: lessons and project for Ratio and Proportion unit!

Posted by on November 25, 2013 in Uncategorized

## STEM Show: a great end to a great week in Bermuda

(If you’re looking for the Belco STEM camp lesson web site, click here)

I think the Ascendant Group / Belco STEM camp for kids was a smashing success and started some conversations that we’re very motivated to continue.  Today was the final day of STEM camp for the week 1 campers.  Anastasia, Jocene, and Diane put together a little showcase and invited parents, Belco executives, the Ministry of Education, and the community to come and talk to the kids about their learning.  We were very pleased with the turnout and the enthusiasm at the STEM show.

First, Anastasia grouped the kids and assigned the groups to a station.  One group got to demo the Green City challenge, two other groups demonstrated robots, one group had an Energy station, and another group had a Web Design station.  Parents and supporters circulated around the stations for 45 minutes or so and asked the kids questions, which they answered excitedly.  The kids could talk forever about their week at STEM camp.

What I found fascinating is how in tune the Bermudian kids are with their own geography. They had some misconceptions about the advantages and disadvantages of certain forms of power generation – but they understood well the limitations of where they live.  Bermuda is on a seamount such that the land is slightly above sea level, a reef area surrounds the islands, and then it drops steeply into the ocean for thousands of feet. There are two other seamounts a few dozen miles away but then nothing else for hundreds of miles, until you get to North Carolina.  They could converse easily about the challenges of living here – having to import almost everything they need, including all fossil fuels – the importance of the tourism industry – the fragility of their reef ecosystem – the calm weather with occasional storms – the historical disappearance of native flora and fauna – the smallness and isolation of it all.  I wondered if kids in Colorado could tell you as much detail about our own geography, and I doubted it.

Logan, Cody, Cameron, and Darius teach their parents about robot design and programming

Derek and Andrew cover principles and tools of web design

Abbie, Brian, and Gabriel completed 5 challenges in the Green City!

Nasir kept his parents captivated for quite a long time, going over everything we did at STEM camp.

Next, we had a little graduation ceremony.  Anastasia and I each gave a speech about the creative problem-solving the students did over the week.  I talked about how real-world problem solving skills can’t be found in a textbook, and that students did important work when it came to teamwork, communication, analyzing tradeoffs, and doing research.  I complimented the students on a wonderful week.  We asked “wouldn’t it be great if school were like this all the time? This is what a STEM education is about. It is learning real-world problem solving by doing real-world problem solving.”  I also brought up FIRST Lego League, and I offered to collect contact information and help interested parents start a team or two.  I got some e-mail addresses and will follow up when I am home.

Anastasia showed a video about problem-based learning and explained her philosophy of teaching in an inquiry-based manner.  She summarized some research about creativity and its importance to learning, and how important creativity is for adolescent development especially.

Campers and their parents watch a video presentation.

We handed out awards – certificates of completion, and some awards of excellence for particular achievements in robotics, energy, and web design.  One of the Belco engineers, Don, had some “trophies” printed up on a 3D printer, and they were a big hit.

Team awards

Trophies from the 3D printer, some with moving parts

Diane McCallum, who handled the STEM camp’s logistics beautifully, Dr. Tankard, from the Ministry of Education, and the very talented Anastasia Smith, camp director.

I loved working with Anastasia. She truly enjoys working with adolescents, and she’s very comfortable and at-home in the world of problem-based and project-based learning.  She came up with terrific lessons and learning experiences that fit the educational goals nicely. She trusted the students to be thinkers, and they were.  She works in North Carolina as a high school science teacher but is spending the summer in Bermuda.  It’s a shame she is normally so far away. I would enjoy working with her and hanging out with her.

A joy to work with Anastasia this week!

I feel really privileged to have been here for this experience. I’m excited to see where it leads and the conversations that are going to continue.  I know we’ll keep in touch with the community at Belco and the Bermudian Ministry of Education, and learn from each other the best way to engage students and invest in their future.

Posted by on July 13, 2013 in Uncategorized

## Day 4 Report: STEM in Bermuda

The STEM camp is so exciting and is going really well.  Jocene Wade-Harmon, the VP of Human Resources at Belco, deserves credit for her vision and persistence in pulling this project together.  Anastasia Smith is the director of the camp and she was such a perfect choice. Her philosophy toward teaching is that of giving kids space to be inquisitive and creative – creating experiences that will cause them to discuss, ask questions, and invent. She has done just that with some great lessons, field trips, and challenges during this STEM camp focused on energy.  Diane McCallum has managed the paperwork, logistics, money, transportation, and food just beautifully.

The kids have accomplished a great deal this week. They have built robots using NXT Mindstorms and gone through a series of tutorials learning how to program them.  Some kids really went above and beyond, and challenged themselves to do some great stuff just by asking themselves if they could. Can I make the robot navigate around obstacles? Can I make it chomp like a Pac-Man?  Can I give my wheels more power or more speed?  What happens if I change the radius of the tires or move the light sensor to another location?  They followed these tangents happily and sometimes created fantastic results.

Building, testing, and refining robots

The kids were introduced to the Green City challenge, in which the robots have to complete missions related to energy to gather energy bricks.  The challenges include spinning a wind turbine, fixing a dam, sorting the trash, replacing an old smokestack, and more.  Some kids have a couple of challenges complete and they are so excited.  They are learning about programming, algorithmic thinking, making trade-offs as far as speed/accuracy/point values, teamwork and organization.

Some of the students had programmed robots before, but there was a wide range of background knowledge and experience.  Several kids did not even have e-mail addresses.  They enjoyed learning the new technology, and they grew in their ability to program very quickly.

Another thread in the camp has been energy.  Bermuda’s energy is produced by diesel engines mostly, with a little biomass from their trash incinerator and a small amount of solar on private homes.  All of the diesel fuel is imported and is very expensive.  The island is very aware of the energy challenges due to their location and geography… but it also gives them opportunities.  The kids have discussed, sorted, and analyzed various sources and forms of energy.  They took home a spreadsheet to analyze their energy use at home.  Anastasia, Jocene, and Diane planned field trip experiences for them.  The kids are very articulate about their geography and the challenges it poses.  Bermuda sits on an extinct volcano, far from the mid-Atlantic ridge where it formed. The seamount is small, and beyond it, the ocean floor drops off precipitously.  The kids realize this makes offshore sources of power very challenging… yet the small area of Bermuda makes onshore power sources difficult too, and some are impossible (such as geothermal and hydroelectric).

A third thread in the camp was on sharing and communicating what they learned, and so we worked on some web design using HTML at first, and then Google Sites.  The students are working on a web site that explains to their parents, to Belco, and to the community what Bermuda’s energy future looks like.

Tomorrow is the students’ STEM show, in which they’ll share what they learned by presenting to the attendees of the show, and then we’ll have some presentations and awards by the teachers and staff. The Minister of Education will be in attendance, along with the executive team at Belco and perhaps the Minister of the Environment.

It’s been a wonderful week, and I definitely hope the momentum continues.  Belco is considering hosting a STEM club for students ongoing if volunteers can be found to run it.  Anastasia and I will appeal to parents tomorrow to consider creating FIRST Lego League teams for their kids, with mentoring and support from us in Colorado and space and equipment offered by Belco.  I think we’ll get some parents that want to take us up on it, and it would be a great start.

Ultimately, there are two separate missions I’d like to see Bermuda tackle.  One is the continual development of their gifted and talented students, to push them to go into STEM careers and stay in Bermuda to help with the little territory’s challenges.  The other is an equity issue.  The divide between the public and private schools, between the wealthy and the not-so-wealthy, is an unhealthy divide.  The kids in public schools with fewer resources deserve a great education that helps them develop their creativity and problem-solving too.  Both are workable with focus and vision from those involved – and it’s OK if it begins here!